When India became independent from the British Empire in 1947, the nizam of Hyderabad did not want to merge with the Indian Union and wanted to remain independent. The Government of India annexed Hyderabad State on 17 September 1948 after a military operation called Operation Polo.[11] It appointed a civil servant, M. K. Vellodi, as first chief minister of Hyderabad State on 26 January 1950.[17] He administered the state with the help of English-educated bureaucrats from the Madrasand Bombaystates, who were familiar with Indian systems of administration unlike the bureaucrats of Hyderabad state who used a completely different administrative system. The official language of the state was switched from Urdu to English.
In 1952, Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected chief minister of the Hyderabad State in its first democratic election. During this time, there were violent agitations by some Telanganites to send the Madras state bureaucrats back and implement a rule by the natives (mulkis) of Hyderabad.[18]
Meanwhile, Telugu-speaking areas in the Northern Circars and Rayalaseema regions were carved out of the erstwhile Madras state as a result of the 'fast unto death' protest by Potti Sreeramulu to create Andhra State in 1953.[19][20][21]

Telangana Rebellion[edit]

Main article: Telangana Rebellion
The Telangana Rebellion was a peasant revolt supported by the communists. It originated in the Telangana regions of the Hyderabad state between 1946 and 1951, led by the Communist Party of India (CPI).[22]
The revolt began in the Nalgonda district against the feudal lords of Reddy and Velama castes. It quickly spread to the Warangaland Bidar districts. Peasant farmers and labourers revolted against the local feudal landlords (jagirdars and deshmukhs) and later against the nizam Osman Ali Khan. The violent phase of the movement ended after the Government of India's Operation Polo.[23] Starting in 1951, the CPI shifted to a more moderate strategy of seeking to bring communism to India within the framework of Indian democracy.[24]

States Reorganisation Commission[edit]

Hyderabad State (in yellowish-green)
In December 1953, the States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) was appointed to form states on a linguistic basis.[25] An agreement was reached between Telangana leaders and Andhra leaders on 20 February 1956 to merge Telangana and Andhra with promises to safeguard Telangana's interests.[26] After reorganisation in 1956, the region of Telangana was merged withAndhra State to form Andhra Pradesh.
Following this Gentlemen's agreement, the central government established the unified state of Andhra Pradesh on 1 November 1956.[19][27][28] G.O 553 of 1959 from the united Andra Pradesh state moved two revenue divisions of Bhadrachalam andAswaraopeta from East Godavari to Khammam for administrative convenience.

Telangana movement[edit]

Main article: Telangana movement
There have been several movements to revoke the merger of Telangana and Andhra, major ones occurring in 1969, 1972, and 2009. The movement for a new state of Telangana gained momentum over the decades.[29] On 9 December 2009 the Government of India announced the process of formation of the Telangana state. Violent protests led by people in the Coastal Andhra and Rayalseema regions occurred immediately after the announcement, and the decision was put on hold on 23 December 2009.
The movement continued in Hyderabad and other districts of Telangana.[30] There have been hundreds of claimed suicides[citation needed], strikes, protests and disturbances to public life demanding separate statehood.

Bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh[edit]

Telangana (in white) and Andhra Pradesh (in yellow) and after bifurcation
On 30 July 2013, the Congress Working Committee unanimously passed a resolution to recommend the formation of a separate Telangana state. After various stages the bill was placed in the Parliament in February 2014.[31] In February 2014, Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was passed by the Parliament of Indiafor the formation of Telangana state comprising ten districts from north-western Andhra Pradesh.[32] The bill received the assent of the President and published in the Gazette on 1 March 2014.[33]
The state of Telangana was officially formed on 2 June 2014. Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao was elected as the first chief minister of Telangana, following elections in which the Telangana Rashtra Samiti party secured majority.[34] Hyderabad will remain as the joint capital of both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh for a period of 10 years.[35]